10 Manuscript Description

10.1 Overview

The msdescription module40 defines a special purpose element which can be used to provide detailed descriptive information about handwritten primary sources. Although originally developed to meet the needs of cataloguers and scholars working with medieval manuscripts in the European tradition, the scheme presented here is general enough that it can also be extended to other traditions and materials, and is potentially useful for any kind of inscribed artefact.

The scheme described here is also intended to accommodate the needs of many different classes of encoders. On the one hand, encoders may be engaged in retrospective conversion of existing detailed descriptions and catalogues into machine tractable form; on the other, they may be engaged in cataloguing ex nihilo, that is, creating new detailed descriptions for materials never before catalogued. Some may be primarily concerned to represent accurately the description itself, as opposed to the ideas and interpretations the description represents; others may have entirely opposite priorities. At one extreme, a project may simply wish to capture an existing catalogue in a form that can be displayed on the Web, and which can be searched for literal strings, or for such features such as titles, authors and dates; at the other, a project may wish to create, in highly structured and encoded form, a detailed database of information about the physical characteristics, history, interpretation, etc. of the material, able to support practitioners of quantitative codicology as well as librarians.

To cater for this diversity, here as elsewhere, these Guidelines propose a flexible strategy, in which encoders must choose for themselves the approach appropriate to their needs, and are provided with a choice of encoding mechanisms to support those differing degrees.

10.2 The Manuscript Description Element

The msDesc element will normally appear within the sourceDesc element of the header of a TEI-conformant document, where the document being encoded is a digital representation of some manuscript original, whether as an encoded transcription, as a collection of digital images (as described in 11.1 Digital Facsimiles), or as some combination of the two. However, in cases where the document being encoded is essentially a collection of manuscript descriptions, the msDesc element may be used in the same way as the bibliographic elements (bibl, biblFull, and biblStruct) making up the TEI element class model.biblLike. These typically appear within the listBibl element.

  • msDesc (manuscript description) contains a description of a single identifiable manuscript or other text-bearing object.

The msDesc element has the following components, which provide more detailed information under a number of headings. Each of these component elements is further described in the remainder of this chapter.

  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.
  • head (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc.
  • msContents (manuscript contents) describes the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of structured manuscript items.
  • physDesc (physical description) contains a full physical description of a manuscript or manuscript part, optionally subdivided using more specialized elements from the model.physDescPart class.
  • history groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • additional groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information.
  • msPart (manuscript part) contains information about an originally distinct manuscript or part of a manuscript, which is now part of a composite manuscript.
  • msFrag (manuscript fragment) contains information about a fragment of a scattered manuscript now held as a single unit or bound into a larger manuscript.

The first of these components, msIdentifier, is the only one which is mandatory; it is described in more detail in 10.4 The Manuscript Identifier below. It is followed optionally by one or more head elements, each holding a brief heading (see 10.5 The Manuscript Heading), and then either one or more paragraphs, marked up as a series of p elements, or one or more of the specialized elements msContents (10.6 Intellectual Content), physDesc (10.7 Physical Description), history (10.8 History), and additional (10.9 Additional Information). These elements are all optional, but if used they must appear in the order given here. Finally, in the case of a composite manuscript (a manuscript composed of several codicological units) or a fragmented manuscript (a manuscript whose parts are now dispersed and kept at different places), a full description may also contain one or more msPart (10.10 Manuscript Parts) elements and msFrag (10.11 Manuscript Fragments) elements, respectively.

To demonstrate the use of this module, consider the following sample manuscript description, chosen more or less at random from the Bodleian Library's Summary catalogue ([177])

bibliography
Entry for Bodleian MS. Add. A. 61 in Madan et al. 1895-1953
Figure 10.1. Entry for Bodleian MS. Add. A. 61 in Madan et al. 1895-1953
The simplest way of digitizing this catalogue entry would simply be to key in the text, tagging the relevant parts of it which make up the mandatory msIdentifier element, as follows:
<msDesc>
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="SC">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <p>In Latin, on parchment: written in more than one hand of the 13th cent. in
   England: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i + 55 leaves, in double columns: with a few coloured
   capitals.</p>
 <p>'Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,' the De origine et gestis Regum Angliae of
   Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis: beg. 'Cum mecum multa &amp; de
   multis.'</p>
 <p>On fol. 54v very faint is 'Iste liber est fratris guillelmi de buria de ...
   Roberti ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],' 14th cent. (?): 'hanauilla' is written
   at the foot of the page (15th cent.). Bought from the rev. W. D. Macray on March
   17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>
</msDesc>
With a suitable stylesheet, this encoding would be as readable as the original; it would not, however, be very useful for search purposes since only shelfmarks and other identifiers are distinguished. To improve on this, one might wrap the paragraphs in the appropriate special-purpose first-child-level elements of msDesc and add some of the additional phrase-level elements available when this module is in use:
<msDesc>
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="SC">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msContents>
  <p>
   <quote>Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,</quote> the <title>De origine et gestis
       Regum Angliae</title> of Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis): beg.
  <quote>Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis.</quote> In Latin.</p>
 </msContents>
 <physDesc>
  <p>
   <material>Parchment</material>: written in more than one hand: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i
     + 55 leaves, in double columns: with a few coloured capitals.</p>
 </physDesc>
 <history>
  <p>Written in <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the <origDate>13th
       cent.</origDate> On fol. 54v very faint is <quote>Iste liber est fratris
       guillelmi de buria de ... Roberti ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],</quote> 14th
     cent. (?): <quote>hanauilla</quote> is written at the foot of the page (15th
     cent.). Bought from the rev. W. D. Macray on March 17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>
 </history>
</msDesc>
Note that in this version the text has been slightly reorganized, but no actual rewriting has been necessary. The encoding now allows the user to search for such features as title, material, and date and place of origin; it is also possible to distinguish quoted material from descriptive passages and to search within descriptions relating to a particular topic (for example, history as distinct from material).
This process could be continued further, restructuring the whole entry so as to take full advantage of many more of the encoding possibilities provided by the module described in this chapter:
<msDesc>
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="SC">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msContents>
  <msItem>
   <author xml:lang="en">Geoffrey of Monmouth</author>
   <author xml:lang="la">Galfridus Monumetensis</author>
   <title type="uniformxml:lang="la">De origine et gestis Regum Angliae</title>
   <rubric xml:lang="la">Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie</rubric>
   <incipit xml:lang="la">Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis</incipit>
   <textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang>
  </msItem>
 </msContents>
 <physDesc>
  <objectDesc form="codex">
   <supportDesc material="perg">
    <support>
     <p>Parchment.</p>
    </support>
    <extent>i + 55 leaves <dimensions scope="alltype="leaf"
      unit="inch">

      <height></height>
      <width>5⅜</width>
     </dimensions>
    </extent>
   </supportDesc>
   <layoutDesc>
    <layout columns="2">
     <p>In double columns.</p>
    </layout>
   </layoutDesc>
  </objectDesc>
  <handDesc>
   <p>Written in more than one hand.</p>
  </handDesc>
  <decoDesc>
   <p>With a few coloured capitals.</p>
  </decoDesc>
 </physDesc>
 <history>
  <origin>
   <p>Written in <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the <origDate notAfter="1300"
     notBefore="1200">
13th cent.</origDate>
   </p>
  </origin>
  <provenance>
   <p>On fol. 54v very faint is <quote xml:lang="la">Iste liber est fratris
         guillelmi de buria de <gap/> Roberti ordinis fratrum
         Pred<ex>icatorum</ex>
    </quote>, 14th cent. (?): <quote>hanauilla</quote> is
       written at the foot of the page (15th cent.).</p>
  </provenance>
  <acquisition>
   <p>Bought from the rev. <name key="MCRAYWD">W. D. Macray</name> on <date when="1863-03-17">March 17, 1863</date>, for £1 10s.</p>
  </acquisition>
 </history>
</msDesc>
In the remainder of this chapter we discuss all of the encoding features demonstrated above, together with many other related matters.

10.3 Phrase-level Elements

When the msdescription module is in use, several extra elements are added to the phrase level class, and thus become available within paragraphs and elsewhere in the document. These elements are listed below in alphabetical order:

  • catchwords describes the system used to ensure correct ordering of the quires making up a codex or incunable, typically by means of annotations at the foot of the page.
  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
  • heraldry contains a heraldic formula or phrase, typically found as part of a blazon, coat of arms, etc.
  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which the object being described is composed.
  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • objectType contains a word or phrase describing the type of object being referred to.
  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • secFol (second folio) marks the word or words taken from a fixed point in a codex (typically the beginning of the second leaf) in order to provide a unique identifier for it.
  • signatures contains discussion of the leaf or quire signatures found within a codex.

Within a manuscript description, many other standard TEI phrase level elements are available, notably those described in the Core module (3 Elements Available in All TEI Documents). Additional elements of particular relevance to manuscript description, such as those for names and dates, may also be made available by including the relevant module in one's schema.

10.3.1 Origination

The following elements may be used to provide information about the origins of any aspect of a manuscript:

  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.

The origDate and origPlace elements are specialized forms of the existing date and name elements respectively, used to indicate specifically the date and place of origin of a manuscript or manuscript part. Such information would normally be encoded within the history element, discussed in section 10.8 History. origDate and origPlace can also be used to identify the place or date of origin of any aspect of the manuscript, such as its decoration or binding, when these are not of the same date or from the same location as rest of the manuscript. Both these elements are members of the att.editLike class, from which they inherit many attributes.

The origDate element is a member of the att.datable class, and may thus also carry additional attributes giving normalized values for the associated dating.

10.3.2 Material and Object Type

The material element can be used to tag any specific term used for the physical material of which a manuscript (or binding, seal, etc.) is composed. The objectType element may be used to tag any term specifying the type of object or manuscript upon with the text is written.

  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which the object being described is composed.
  • objectType contains a word or phrase describing the type of object being referred to.
These elements may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs, as in the following examples:
<binding>
 <p>Brown <material>calfskin</material>, previously with two clasps.</p>
</binding>
<support>
 <p>
  <material>Parchment</material>
  <objectType>codex</objectType> with half <material>goat-leather</material>
   binding.</p>
</support>

10.3.3 Watermarks and Stamps

Two further elements are provided to mark up other decorative features characteristic of manuscript leaves and bindings:

  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • stamp contains a word or phrase describing a stamp or similar device.
These element may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs. The watermark element is most likely to be of use within the support element discussed in 10.7.1.1 Support below. We give a simple example here:
<support>
 <material>Rag
   paper</material> with <watermark>anchor</watermark> watermark
</support>
The stamp element will typically appear when text from the source is being transcribed, for example within a rubric in the following case:
<rubric>
 <lb/>Apologyticu TTVLLIANI AC IGNORATIA IN XPO IHV
<lb/>SI NON LICET
<lb/>NOBIS RO
<lb/>manii imperii <stamp>Bodleian stamp</stamp>
 <lb/>
</rubric>
It may also appear as part of the detailed description of a binding:
<binding>
 <p>Modern calf recasing with original armorial stamp <stamp>with legend
  <mentioned xml:lang="LA">Ex Bibliotheca J. Richard
       D.M.</mentioned>
  </stamp>
 </p>
</binding>

If, as here, any text contained by a stamp is included in its description it should be clearly distinguished from that description. The element mentioned may be used for this purpose, as shown above.

10.3.4 Dimensions

The dimensions element can be used to specify the size of some aspect of the manuscript, and thus may be thought of as a specialized form of the existing TEI measure element.

  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
    typeindicates which aspect of the object is being measured. Sample values include: 1] leaves; 2] ruled; 3] pricked; 4] written; 5] miniatures; 6] binding; 7] box

The dimensions element will normally occur within the element describing the particular feature or aspect of a manuscript whose dimensions are being given; thus the size of the leaves would be specified within the support or extent element (part of the physDesc element discussed in 10.7.1 Object Description), while the dimensions of other specific parts of a manuscript, such as accompanying materials, binding, etc., would be given in other parts of the description, as appropriate.

The following elements are available within the dimensions element:

  • height contains a measurement measured along the axis at right angles to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. parallel to the spine for a codex or book.
  • width contains a measurement measured along the axis parallel to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. perpendicular to the spine of a book or codex.
  • depth contains a measurement measured across the spine of a book or codex, or (for other text-bearing objects) perpendicular to the measurement given by the ‘width’ element.
  • dim contains any single measurement forming part of a dimensional specification of some sort.

These elements, as well as dimensions itself, are all members of the att.dimensions class, which also inherits attributes from the att.ranging class. They all thus carry the following attributes:

  • att.dimensions provides attributes for describing the size of physical objects.
    scopewhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation, specifies the applicability of this measurement. Sample values include: 1] all; 2] most; 3] range
    extentindicates the size of the object concerned using a project-specific vocabulary combining quantity and units in a single string of words.
    unitnames the unit used for the measurement Suggested values include: 1] cm(centimetres) ; 2] mm(millimetres) ; 3] in(inches) ; 4] lines; 5] chars(characters)
    quantityspecifies the length in the units specified
  • att.ranging provides attributes for describing numerical ranges.
    atLeastgives a minimum estimated value for the approximate measurement.
    atMostgives a maximum estimated value for the approximate measurement.
    minwhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation or a range, supplies the minimum value observed.
    maxwhere the measurement summarizes more than one observation or a range, supplies the maximum value observed.

Attributes scope, min, and max are used only when the measurement applies to several items, for example the size of all leaves in a manuscript; attributes atLeast and atMost are used when the measurement applies to a single item, for example the size of a specific codex, but has had to be estimated. Attribute quantity is used when the measurement can be given exactly, and applies to a single item; this is the usual situation. In this case, the units in which dimensions are measured may be specified using the unit attribute, the value of which will normally be taken from a closed set of values appropriate to the project, using standard units of measurement wherever possible, such as cm, mm, in, line, char. If however the only data available for the measurement uses some other unit, or it is preferred to normalize it in some other way, then it may be supplied as a string value by means of the extent attribute.

In the simplest case, only the extent attribute may be supplied:
<width extent="6 cubit">six
cubits</width>
More usually, the measurement will be normalized into a value and an appropriate SI unit:
<width quantity="270unit="cm">six cubits</width>
Where the exact value is uncertain, the attributes atLeast and atMost may be used to indicate the upper and lower bounds of an estimated value:
<width atLeast="250atMost="300unit="cm">six cubits</width>
It is often convenient to supply a measurement which applies to a number of discrete observations: for example, the number of ruled lines on the pages of a manuscript (which may not all be the same), or the diameter of an object like a bell, which will differ depending where it is measured. In such cases, the scope attribute may be used to specify the observations for which this measurement is applicable:
<height unit="linescope="most"
 atLeast="20"/>
This indicates that most pages have at least 20 lines. The attributes min and max can also be used to specify the possible range of values: for example, to show that all pages have between 12 and 30 lines:
<height unit="linescope="allmin="12"
 max="30"/>
The dimensions element may be repeated as often as necessary, with appropriate attribute values to indicate the nature and scope of the measurement concerned. For example, in the following case the leaf size and ruled space of the leaves of the manuscript are specified:
<dimensions type="ruledunit="mm">
 <height scope="mostquantity="90"
  unit="mm"/>

 <width scope="mostquantity="48unit="mm"/>
</dimensions>
<dimensions type="leaves">
 <height min="157max="160unit="mm"/>
 <width quantity="105"/>
</dimensions>
This indicates that for most leaves of the manuscript being described the ruled space is 90 mm high and 48 mm wide, while the leaves throughout are between 157 and 160 mm in height and 105 mm in width.
The dim element is provided for cases where some measurement other than height, width, or depth is required. Its type attribute is used to indicate the type of measurement involved:
<dimensions unit="cm">
 <dim type="circumferencequantity="48"
  unit="mm"/>

 <height quantity="90unit="mm"/>
</dimensions>

The order in which components of the dimensions element may be supplied is not constrained.

10.3.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript

The locus and its grouping element locusGrp element are specialized forms of the ref element, used to indicate a location, or sequence of locations, within a manuscript.

  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
    fromspecifies the starting point of the location in a normalized form, typically a page number.
    tospecifies the end-point of the location in a normalized form, typically as a page number.
    schemeidentifies the foliation scheme in terms of which the location is being specified by pointing to some foliation element defining it, or to some other equivalent resource.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
    schemeidentifies the foliation scheme in terms of which all the locations contained by the group are specified by pointing to some foliation element defining it, or to some other equivalent resource.

The locus element is used to reference a single location within a manuscript, typically to specify the location occupied by the element within which it appears. If, for example, it is used as the first component of a msItem or msItemStruct element, or of any of the more specific elements appearing within one (see further section 10.6 Intellectual Content below) then it is understood to specify the location (or locations) of that item within the manuscript being described.

10.3.5.1 Identifying a Location
A locus element can be used to identify any reference to one or more folios within a manuscript, wherever such a reference is appropriate. Locations are conventionally specified as a sequence of folio or page numbers, but may also be a discontinuous list, or a combination of the two. This specification should be given as the content of the locus element, using the conventions appropriate to the individual scholar or holding institution, as in the following example:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus>ff. 1-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
A normalized form of the location can also be supplied, using special purpose attributes on the locus element, as in the following revision of the above example:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus from="1rto="24r">ff. 1-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
When the item concerned occupies a discontinuous sequence of pages, this may simply be indicated in the body of the locus element:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus>ff. 1-12v, 18-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
Alternatively, if it is desired to indicate normalized values for each part of the sequence, a sequence of locus elements can be supplied, grouped within the locusGrp element:
<msItem n="1">
 <locusGrp>
  <locus from="1rto="12v">ff. 1-12v</locus>
  <locus from="18to="24r">ff. 18-24r</locus>
 </locusGrp>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
Finally, the content of the locus element may be omitted if a formatting application can construct it automatically from the values of the from and to attributes:
<msItem n="1">
 <locusGrp>
  <locus from="1rto="12v"/>
  <locus from="18to="24r"/>
 </locusGrp>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
10.3.5.2 Linking a Location to a Transcription or an Image

The locus attribute can also be used to associate a location within a manuscript with facsimile images of that location, using the facs attribute, or with a transcription of the text occurring at that location. The former association is effected by means of the facs attribute; the latter by means of the target attribute.

The facs is available only when the transcr module described in chapter 11 Representation of Primary Sources is included in a schema. It associates a locus element with one or more digitized images, as in the following example:
<msItem>
 <locus facs="images/08v.jpg images/09r.jpg images/09v.jpg images/10r.jpg images/10v.jpg">fols. 8v-10v</locus>
 <title>Birds Praise of Love</title>
 <bibl>
  <title>IMEV</title>
  <biblScope>1506</biblScope>
 </bibl>
</msItem>
Here, the facs attribute uses a URI reference to point directly to images of the relevant pages. This method may be found cumbersome when many images are to be associated with a single location. It is of most use when specific pages are referenced within a description, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <p>Several of the miniatures in this section have been damaged and overpainted
   at a later date (e.g. the figure of Christ on <locus facs="http://www.example.com/images.fr#F33R">fol. 33r</locus>; the face of the
   Shepherdess on <locus facs="http://www.example.com/images.fr#F59V">fol.
     59v</locus>, etc.).</p>
</decoDesc>
For further discussion of the facs attribute, see section 11.1 Digital Facsimiles.
Where a transcription of the relevant pages is available, this may be associated with the locus element using its target attribute, as in the following example:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus target="#f1r #f1v #f2r">ff. 1r-2r</locus>
 <author>Ben Jonson</author>
 <title>Ode to himself</title>
 <rubric rend="italics">
  <lb/> An Ode
 <lb/> to him selfe.</rubric>
 <incipit>Com leaue the loathed stage</incipit>
 <explicit>And see his chariot triumph ore his wayne.</explicit>
 <bibl>
  <name>Beal</name>, <title>Index 1450-1625</title>, JnB 380</bibl>
</msItem>
<!-- within transcription ... -->
<pb xml:id="f1r"/>
<!-- ... -->
<pb xml:id="f1v"/>
<!-- ... -->
<pb xml:id="f2r"/>
<!-- ... -->

When (as in this example) a sequence of elements is to be supplied as target value, it may be given explicitly as above, or using the xPointer range() syntax defined at 16.2.4.6 range(). Note however that support for this pointer mechanism is not widespread in current XML processing systems.

The target attribute should only be used to point to elements that contain or indicate a transcription of the locus being described. To associate a locus element with a page image or other comparable representation, the global facs attribute should be used instead.

10.3.5.3 Using Multiple Location Schemes
Where a manuscript contains more than one foliation, the scheme attribute may be used to distinguish them. For example, MS 65 Corpus Christi College, Cambridge contains two fly leaves bearing music. These leaves have modern foliation 135 and 136 respectively, but are also marked with an older foliation. This may be preserved in an encoding such as the following:
<locus scheme="#original">XCIII</locus>
<locus scheme="#modern">135</locus>
Here the scheme attribute points to a foliation element providing more details about the scheme used, as further discussed in 10.7.1.4 Foliation below.
Where discontinuous sequences are identified within two different foliations, the scheme attribute should be supplied on the locusGrp element in preference, as in the following:
<locusGrp scheme="#original">
 <locus>XCIII</locus>
 <locus>CC-CCII</locus>
</locusGrp>
<locusGrp scheme="#modern">
 <locus>135</locus>
 <locus>197-204</locus>
</locusGrp>

10.3.6 Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations

The standard TEI element name may be used to identify names of any kind occurring within a description:

  • name (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase.

As further discussed in 3.5.1 Referring Strings, this element is a member of the class att.canonical, from which it inherits the following attributes:

  • att.canonical provides attributes which can be used to associate a representation such as a name or title with canonical information about the object being named or referenced.
    keyprovides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.
    ref(reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition or identity for the entity being named by means of one or more URIs.
Here are some examples of the use of the name element:
<name type="person">Thomas Hoccleve</name>
<name type="place">Villingaholt</name>
<name type="org">Vetus Latina Institut</name>
<name type="personref="#HOC001">Occleve</name>
Note that the name element is defined as providing information about a name, not the person, place, or organization to which that name refers. In the last example above, the ref attribute is used to associate the name with a more detailed description of the person named. This is provided by means of the person element, which becomes available when the namesdates module described in chapter 13 Names, Dates, People, and Places is included in a schema. An element such as the following might then be used to provide detailed information about the person indicated by the name:
<person xml:id="HOC001">
 <persName>
  <surname>Hoccleve</surname>
  <forename>Thomas</forename>
 </persName>
 <birth notBefore="1368"/>
 <occupation>poet</occupation>
<!-- other personal data -->
</person>
Note that an instance of the person element must be provided for each distinct ref value specified. For example, in the case above, the value HOC001 must be found as the xml:id attribute of some person element; the same value will be used as the ref attribute of every reference to Hoccleve in the document (however spelled), but there will only be one person element with this identifier.

Alternatively, the key attribute may be used to supply a unique identifying code for the person referenced by the name independently of both the existence of a person element and the use of the standard URI reference mechanism. If, for example, a project maintains as its authority file some non-digital resource, or uses a database which cannot readily be integrated with other digital resources for this purpose, the unique codes used by such ‘offline’ resources may be used as values for the key attribute. Although such practices clearly reduce the interchangeability of the resulting encoded texts, they may be judged more convenient or practical in certain situations. As explained in 3.5.1 Referring Strings, interchange is improved by use of tag URIs in ref instead of key.

All the person elements referenced by a particular document set should be collected together within a listPerson element, located in the TEI header. This functions as a kind of prosopography for all the people referenced by the set of manuscripts being described, in much the same way as a listBibl element in the back matter may be used to hold bibliographic information for all the works referenced.

When the namesdates module described in chapter 13 Names, Dates, People, and Places is included in a schema, similar mechanisms are used to maintain and reference canonical lists of places or organizations, as further discussed in sections 13.2.3 Place Names and 13.2.2 Organizational Names respectively.

10.3.7 Catchwords, Signatures, Secundo Folio

The catchwords element is used to describe one method by which correct ordering of the quires of a codex is ensured. Typically, this takes the form of a word or phrase written in the lower margin of the last leaf verso of a gathering, which provides a preview of the first recto leaf of the successive gathering. This may be a simple phrase such as the following:
<catchwords>Quires signed on the
last leaf verso in roman numerals.</catchwords>
Alternatively, it may contain more details:
<catchwords>Vertical catchwords in the hand of the scribe placed along the inner
bounding line, reading from top to bottom.</catchwords>
The ‘Signatures’ element is used, in a similar way, to describe a similar system in which quires or leaves are marked progressively in order to facilitate arrangement during binding. For example:
<signatures>At the bottom of the
first four leaves of quires 1-14 are the remains of a series of quire signatures
a-o plus roman figures in a cursive hand of the fourteenth century.</signatures>
The signatures element can be used for either leaf signatures, or a combination of quire and leaf signatures, whether the marking is alphabetic, alphanumeric, or some ad hoc system, as in the following more complex example:
<signatures>Quire and leaf
signatures in letters, [b]-v, and roman numerals; those in quires 10 (1) and 17
(s) in red ink and different from others; every third quire also signed with red
crayon in arabic numerals in the centre lower margin of the first leaf recto:
"2" for quire 4 (f. 19), "3" for quire 7 (f. 43); "4", barely visible, for quire
10 (f. 65), "5", in a later hand, for quire 13 (f. 89), "6", in a later hand,
for quire 16 (f. 113).</signatures>
The secFol element (for ‘secundo folio’) is used to record an identifying phrase (also called dictio probatoria) taken from a specific known point in a codex (for example the first few words on the second leaf). Since these words will differ from one copy of a text to another, the practice originated in the middle ages of using them when cataloguing a manuscript in order to distinguish individual copies of a work in a way which its opening words could not.
<secFol>(ando-)ssene in una villa</secFol>

10.3.8 Heraldry

Descriptions of heraldic arms, supporters, devices, and mottos may appear at various points in the description of a manuscript, usually in the context of ownership information, binding descriptions, or detailed accounts of illustrations. A full description may also contain a detailed account of the heraldic components of a manuscript independently considered. Frequently, however, heraldic descriptions will be cited as short phrases within other parts of the record. The phrase level element heraldry is provided to allow such phrases to be marked for further analysis, as in the following examples:
<p>Ownership stamp (xvii cent.) on i recto with the arms <heraldry>A bull
   passant within a bordure bezanty, in chief a crescent for difference</heraldry>
[Cole], crest, and the legend <quote>Cole Deum</quote>.</p>
<!-- ... -->
<p>A c. 8r fregio su due lati, <heraldry>stemma e imprese medicee</heraldry>
racchiudono l'inizio dell'epistolario di Paolino.</p>

10.4 The Manuscript Identifier

The msIdentifier element is intended to provide an unambiguous means of uniquely identifying a particular manuscript. This may be done in a structured way, by providing information about the holding institution and the call number, shelfmark, or other identifier used to indicate its location within that institution. Alternatively, or in addition, a manuscript may be identified simply by a commonly used name.

  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.

A manuscript's actual physical location may occasionally be different from its place of ownership; at Cambridge University, for example, manuscripts owned by various colleges are kept in the central University Library. Normally, it is the ownership of the manuscript which should be specified in the manuscript identifier, while additional or more precise information on the physical location of the manuscript can be given within the adminInfo element, discussed in section 10.9.1 Administrative Information below.

The following elements are available within msIdentifier to identify the holding institution:

  • country contains the name of a geo-political unit, such as a nation, country, colony, or commonwealth, larger than or administratively superior to a region and smaller than a bloc.
  • region contains the name of an administrative unit such as a state, province, or county, larger than a settlement, but smaller than a country.
  • settlement contains the name of a settlement such as a city, town, or village identified as a single geo-political or administrative unit.
  • institution contains the name of an organization such as a university or library, with which a manuscript is identified, generally its holding institution.
  • repository contains the name of a repository within which manuscripts are stored, possibly forming part of an institution.

These elements are all structurally equivalent to the standard TEI name element with an appropriate value for its type attribute; however the use of this ‘syntactic sugar’ enables the model for msIdentifier to be constrained rather more tightly than would otherwise be possible. Specifically, only one of each of the elements listed above may appear within the msIdentifier and they must, if present, appear in the order given.

Like name, these elements are all also members of the attribute class att.canonical, and thus can use the attributes key or ref to reference a single standardized source of information about the entity named.

The following elements are used within msIdentifier to provide different ways of identifying the manuscript within its holding institution:

  • collection contains the name of a collection of manuscripts, not necessarily located within a single repository.
  • idno (identifier) supplies any form of identifier used to identify some object, such as a bibliographic item, a person, a title, an organization, etc. in a standardized way.
  • altIdentifier (alternative identifier) contains an alternative or former structured identifier used for a manuscript, such as a former catalogue number.
  • msName (alternative name) contains any form of unstructured alternative name used for a manuscript, such as an ‘ocellus nominum’, or nickname.
Major manuscript repositories will usually have a preferred form of citation for manuscript shelfmarks, including rules about punctuation, spacing, abbreviation, etc., which should be adhered to. Where such a format also contains information which might additionally be supplied as a distinct subcomponent of the msIdentifier, for example a collection name, a decision must be taken as to whether to use the more specific element, or to include such information within the idno element. For example, the manuscript formally identified as ‘El 26 C 9’ forms a part of the Ellesmere (‘El’) collection. Either of the following encodings is therefore feasible:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region>California</region>
 <settlement>San Marino</settlement>
 <repository>Huntington Library</repository>
 <collection>El</collection>
 <idno>26 C 9</idno>
 <msName>The Ellesmere Chaucer</msName>
</msIdentifier>
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region>California</region>
 <settlement>San Marino</settlement>
 <repository>Huntington Library</repository>
 <idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
 <msName>The Ellesmere Chaucer</msName>
</msIdentifier>
In the former example, the preferred form of the identifier can be retrieved by prefixing the content of the idno element with that of the collection element, while in the latter it is given explicitly. The advantage of the former is that it simplifies accurate retrieval of all manuscripts from a given collection; the disadvantage is that encoded abbreviations of this kind may not be as immediately comprehensible. Care should be taken to avoid redundancy: for example
<collection>El</collection>
<idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
would clearly be inappropriate. Equally clearly,
<collection>Ellesmere</collection>
<idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
might be considered helpful in some circumstances (if, for example, some of the items in the Ellesmere collection had shelfmarks which did not begin ‘El’).
In some cases the shelfmark may contain no information about the collection; in other cases, the item may be regarded as belonging to more than one collection. The collection element may be added, and repeated as often as necessary to cater for such situations:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>Hungary</country>
 <settlement>Budapest</settlement>
 <repository xml:lang="fr"> Bibliothèque de l'Académie des Sciences de Hongrie </repository>
 <collection>Oriental Collection</collection>
 <collection>Sandor Kégl Bequest</collection>
 <idno>MS 1265</idno>
</msIdentifier>
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region>New Jersey</region>
 <settlement>Princeton</settlement>
 <repository>Princeton University Library</repository>
 <collection>Scheide Library</collection>
 <idno>MS 71</idno>
 <msName>Blickling Homiliary</msName>
</msIdentifier>
Note in the latter case the use of the msName element to provide a common name other than the shelfmark by which a manuscript is known. Where a manuscript has several such names, more than one of these elements may be used, as in the following example:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>Danmark</country>
 <settlement>København</settlement>
 <repository>Det Arnamagnæanske Institut</repository>
 <idno>AM 45 fol.</idno>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Frisianus</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="is">Fríssbók</msName>
</msIdentifier>
Here the globally available xml:lang attribute has been used to specify the language of the alternative names.
In very rare cases a repository may have only one manuscript (or only one of any significance), which will have no shelfmark as such but will be known by a particular name or names. In such circumstances, the idno element may be omitted, and the manuscript identified by the name or names used for it, using one or more msName elements, as in the following example:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Rossano</settlement>
 <repository xml:lang="it">Biblioteca arcivescovile</repository>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Rossanensis</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex purpureus</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="en">The Rossano Gospels</msName>
</msIdentifier>
Where manuscripts have moved from one institution to another, or even within the same institution, they may have identifiers additional to the ones currently used, such as former shelfmarks, which are sometimes retained even after they have been officially superseded. In such cases it may be useful to supply an alternative identifier, with a detailed structure similar to that of the msIdentifier itself. The following example shows a manuscript which had shelfmark II-M-5 in the collection of the Duque de Osuna, but which now has the shelfmark MS 10237 in the National Library in Madrid:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Madrid</settlement>
 <repository>Biblioteca Nacional</repository>
 <idno>MS 10237</idno>
 <altIdentifier>
  <region>Andalucia</region>
  <settlement>Osuna</settlement>
  <repository>Duque de Osuna</repository>
  <idno>II-M-5</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
Normally, such information would be dealt with under history, except in cases where a manuscript is likely still to be referred to or known by its former identifier. For example, an institution may have changed its call number system but still wish to retain a record of the earlier number, perhaps because the manuscript concerned is frequently cited in print under its previous number:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Berkeley</settlement>
 <institution>University of California</institution>
 <repository>Bancroft Library</repository>
 <idno>UCB 16</idno>
 <altIdentifier>
  <idno>2MS BS1145 I8</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
Where (as in this example) no repository is specified for the altIdentifier, it is assumed to be the same as that of the parent msIdentifier. Where the holding institution has only one preferred form of citation but wishes to retain the other for internal administrative purposes, the secondary could be given within altIdentifier with an appropriate value on the type attribute:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
 <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
 <idno>MS. Bodley 406</idno>
 <altIdentifier type="SC">
  <idno>2297</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
It might, however, be preferable to include such information within the adminInfo element discussed in section 10.9.1 Administrative Information below.

Cases of such changed or alternative identifiers should be clearly distinguished from cases of ‘fragmented’ (10.11 Manuscript Fragments) manuscripts, that is to say manuscripts which although physically disjoint are nevertheless generally treated as single units.

As mentioned above, the smallest possible description is one that contains only the element msIdentifier; good practice in all but exceptional circumstances requires the presence within it of the three sub-elements settlement, repository, and idno, since they provide what is, by common consent, the minimum amount of information necessary to identify a manuscript.

10.5 The Manuscript Heading

Historically, the briefest possible meaningful description of a manuscript consists of no more than a title, e.g. Polychronicon. This will often have been enough to identify a manuscript in a small collection because the identity of the author is implicit. Where a title does not imply the author, and is thus insufficient to identify the main text of a manuscript, the author should be stated explicitly (e.g. Augustinus, Sermones or Cicero, Letters). Many inventories of manuscripts consist of no more than an author and title, with some form of copy-specific identifier, such as a shelfmark or ‘secundo folio’ reference (e.g. Arch. B. 3. 2: Evangelium Matthei cum glossa, 126. Isidori Originum libri octo, Biblia Hieronimi, 2o fo. opus est); information on date and place of writing will sometimes also be included. The standard TEI element head element can be used to provide a brief description of this kind.
  • head (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc.
In this way the cataloguer or scholar can supply in one place a minimum of essential information, such as might be displayed or printed as the heading of a full description. For example:
<head>Marsilius de Inghen, Abbreviata phisicorum Aristotelis; Italy,
1463.</head>
Any phrase-level elements, such as title, name, date, or the specialized elements origPlace and origDate, can also be used within a head element, but it should be remembered that the head element is intended principally to contain a heading. More structured information concerning the contents, physical form, or history of the manuscript should be given within the specialized elements described below, msContents, physDesc, history, etc. However, in simple cases, the p element may also be used to supply an unstructured collection of such information, as in the example given above (10.2 The Manuscript Description Element).

10.6 Intellectual Content

The msContents element is used to describe the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part. It comprises either a series of informal prose paragraphs or a series of msItem or msItemStruct elements, each of which provides a more detailed description of a single item contained within the manuscript. These may be prefaced, if desired, by a summary element, which is especially useful where one wishes to provide an overview of a manuscript's contents and describe only some of the items in detail.

  • msContents (manuscript contents) describes the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of structured manuscript items.
  • msItem (manuscript item) describes an individual work or item within the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • msItemStruct (structured manuscript item) contains a structured description for an individual work or item within the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • summary contains an overview of the available information concerning some aspect of an item (for example, its intellectual content, history, layout, typography etc.) as a complement or alternative to the more detailed information carried by more specific elements.
In the simplest case, only a brief description may be provided, as in the following examples:
<msContents>
 <p>A collection of Lollard sermons</p>
</msContents>
<msContents>
 <p>Atlas of the world from Western Europe and Africa to Indochina, containing 27
   maps and 26 tables</p>
</msContents>
<msContents>
 <p>Biblia sacra: Antiguo y Nuevo Testamento, con prefacios, prólogos y
   argumentos de san Jerónimo y de otros. Interpretaciones de los nombres
   hebreos.</p>
</msContents>
This description may of course be expanded to include any of the TEI elements generally available within a p element, such as title, bibl, or list. More usually, however, each individual work within a manuscript will be given its own description, using the msItem or msItemStruct element described in the next section, as in the following example:
<msContents>
 <msItem n="1">
  <locus>fols. 5r -7v</locus>
  <title>An ABC</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope>239</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="2">
  <locus>fols. 7v -8v</locus>
  <title xml:lang="fr">Lenvoy de Chaucer a Scogan</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope>3747</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="3">
  <locus>fol. 8v</locus>
  <title>Truth</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope>809</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="4">
  <locus>fols. 8v-10v</locus>
  <title>Birds Praise of Love</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope>1506</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="5">
  <locus>fols. 10v -11v</locus>
  <title xml:lang="la">De amico ad amicam</title>
  <title xml:lang="la">Responcio</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope>16 &amp; 19</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="6">
  <locus>fols. 14r-126v</locus>
  <title>Troilus and Criseyde</title>
  <note>Bk. 1:71-Bk. 5:1701, with additional losses due to mutilation
     throughout</note>
 </msItem>
</msContents>

The summary element may be used in conjunction with one or more msItem elements if it is desired to provide both a general summary of the contents of a manuscript and more detail about some or all of the individual items within it. It may not however be used within an individual msItem element.

<msContents>
 <summary>A collection of Lollard sermons</summary>
 <msItem n="1">
  <locus>fol. 4r-8r</locus>
  <title>3rd Sunday Before Lent</title>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="2">
  <locus>fol. 9r-16v</locus>
  <title>Sexagesima</title>
 </msItem>
</msContents>

10.6.1 The <msItem> and <msItemStruct> Elements

Each discrete item in a manuscript or manuscript part can be described within a distinct msItem or msItemStruct element, and may be classified using the class attribute.

These are the possible component elements of msItem and msItemStruct.

  • author in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority.
  • respStmt (statement of responsibility) supplies a statement of responsibility for the intellectual content of a text, edition, recording, or series, where the specialized elements for authors, editors, etc. do not suffice or do not apply. May also be used to encode information about individuals or organizations which have played a role in the production or distribution of a bibliographic work.
  • title contains a title for any kind of work.
    typeclassifies the title according to some convenient typology. Sample values include: 1] main; 2] sub(subordinate) ; 3] alt(alternate) ; 4] short; 5] desc(descriptive)
  • rubric contains the text of any rubric or heading attached to a particular manuscript item, that is, a string of words through which a manuscript signals the beginning of a text division, often with an assertion as to its author and title, which is in some way set off from the text itself, usually in red ink, or by use of different size or type of script, or some other such visual device.
  • incipit contains the incipit of a manuscript item, that is the opening words of the text proper, exclusive of any rubric which might precede it, of sufficient length to identify the work uniquely; such incipits were, in former times, frequently used a means of reference to a work, in place of a title.
  • quote (quotation) contains a phrase or passage attributed by the narrator or author to some agency external to the text.
  • explicit contains the explicit of a manuscript item, that is, the closing words of the text proper, exclusive of any rubric or colophon which might follow it.
  • finalRubric contains the string of words that denotes the end of a text division, often with an assertion as to its author and title, usually set off from the text itself by red ink, by a different size or type of script, or by some other such visual device.
  • colophon contains the colophon of a manuscript item: that is, a statement providing information regarding the date, place, agency, or reason for production of the manuscript.
  • decoNote (note on decoration) contains a note describing either a decorative component of a manuscript, or a fairly homogenous class of such components.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.
  • bibl (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.
  • filiation contains information concerning the manuscript's filiation, i.e. its relationship to other surviving manuscripts of the same text, its protographs, antigraphs and apographs.
  • note contains a note or annotation.
  • textLang (text language) describes the languages and writing systems identified within the bibliographic work being described, rather than its description.

In addition, a msItemStruct may contain nested msItemStruct elements, just as an msItem may contain nested msItem elements.

The main difference between msItem and msItemStruct is that in the former, the order and number of child elements is not constrained; any element, in other words, may be given in any order, and repeated as often as is judged necessary. In the latter, however, the sub-elements, if used, must be given in the order specified above and only some of them may be repeated; specifically, rubric, finalRubric. incipit, textLang and explicit can appear only once.

While neither msItem nor msItemStruct may contain untagged running text, both permit an unstructured description to be provided in the form of one or more paragraphs of text. They differ in this respect also: if paragraphs are supplied as the content of an msItem, then none of the other component elements listed above is permitted; in the msItemStruct case, however, paragraphs may appear anywhere as an alternative to any of the component elements listed above.

As noted above, both msItem and msItemStruct elements may also nest, where a number of separate items in a manuscript are grouped under a single title or rubric, as is the case, for example, with a work like The Canterbury Tales.

The elements msContents, msItem, msItemStruct, incipit, and explicit are all members of the class att.msExcerpt from which they inherit the defective attribute.
  • att.msExcerpt (manuscript excerpt) provides attributes used to describe excerpts from a manuscript placed in a description thereof.
    defectiveindicates whether the passage being quoted is defective, i.e. incomplete through loss or damage.
This attribute can be used for example with collections of fragments, where each fragment is given as a separate msItem and the first and last words of each fragment are transcribed as defective incipits and explicits, as in the following example, a manuscript containing four fragments of a single work:
<msContents>
 <msItem defective="true">
  <locus from="1rto="9v">1r-9v</locus>
  <title>Knýtlinga saga</title>
  <msItem n="1.1">
   <locus from="1r:1to="2v:30">1r:1-2v:30</locus>
   <incipit defective="true">dan<ex>n</ex>a a engl<ex>an</ex>di</incipit>
   <explicit defective="true">en meðan <expan>haraldr</expan> hein hafði
       k<ex>onung</ex>r v<am>
     <g ref="http://www.example.com/abbrevs.xml#er"/>
    </am>it
       yf<ex>ir</ex> danmork</explicit>
  </msItem>
<!-- msItems 1.2 to 1.4 -->
 </msItem>
</msContents>

The elements ex, am, and expan used in the above example are further discussed in section 11.3.1.2 Abbreviation and Expansion; they are available only when the transcr module defined by that chapter is selected. Similarly, the g element used in this example to represent the abbreviation mark is defined by the gaiji module documented in chapter 5 Characters, Glyphs, and Writing Modes.

10.6.2 Authors and Titles

When used within a manuscript description, the title element should be used to supply a regularized form of the item's title, as distinct from any rubric quoted from the manuscript. If the item concerned has a standardized distinctive title, e.g. Roman de la Rose, then this should be the form given as content of the title element, with the value of the type attribute given as uniform. If no uniform title exists for an item, or none has been yet identified, or if one wishes to provide a general designation of the contents, then a ‘supplied’ title can be given, e.g. missal, in which case the type attribute on the title should be given the value supplied.

Similarly, if used within a manuscript description, the author element should always contain the normalized form of an author's name, irrespective of how (or whether) this form of the name is cited in the manuscript. If it is desired to retain the form of the author's name as given in the manuscript, this may be tagged as a distinct name element, within the text at the point where it occurs.

Note that the key attribute can also be used, as on names in general, to specify the identifier of a person element carrying full details of the person concerned (see further 10.3.6 Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations).

The respStmt element can be used to supply the name and role of a person other than the author who is responsible for some aspect of the intellectual content of the manuscript:
<author>Diogenes Laertius</author>
<respStmt>
 <resp>in the translation of</resp>
 <name>Ambrogio Traversari</name>
</respStmt>
The respStmt element can also be used where there is a discrepancy between the author of an item as given in the manuscript and the accepted scholarly view, as in the following example:
<title type="supplied">Sermons on the Epistles and the Gospels</title>
<respStmt>
 <resp>here erroneously attributed to</resp>
 <name>St. Bonaventura</name>
</respStmt>
Note that such attributions of authorship, both correct and incorrect, are frequently found in the rubric or final rubric (and occasionally also elsewhere in the text), and can therefore be transcribed and included in the description, if desired, using the rubric, finalRubric, or quote elements, as appropriate.

10.6.3 Rubrics, Incipits, Explicits, and Other Quotations from the Text

It is customary in a manuscript description to record the opening and closing words of a text as well as any headings or colophons it might have, and the specialized elements rubric, incipit, explicit, finalRubric, and colophon are available within msItem for doing so, along with the more general quote, for recording other bits of the text not covered by these elements. Each of these elements has the same substructure, containing a mixture of phrase-level elements and plain text. A locus element can be included within each, in order to specify the location of the component, as in the following example:
<msContents>
 <msItem>
  <locus>f. 1-223</locus>
  <author>Radulphus Flaviacensis</author>
  <title>Expositio super Leviticum </title>
  <incipit>
   <locus>f. 1r</locus> Forte Hervei monachi</incipit>
  <explicit>
   <locus>f. 223v</locus> Benedictio salis et aquae</explicit>
 </msItem>
</msContents>
In the following example, standard TEI elements for the transcription of primary sources have been used to mark the expansion of abbreviations and other features present in the original:
<msItem defective="true">
 <locus>ff. 1r-24v</locus>
 <title type="uniform">Ágrip af Noregs konunga sǫgum</title>
 <incipit defective="true">
  <lb/>regi oc h<ex>ann</ex> seti ho<gap reason="illegiblequantity="7"
   unit="mm"/>

  <lb/>sc heim se<ex>m</ex> þio</incipit>
 <explicit defective="true">h<ex>on</ex> hev<ex>er</ex>
  <ex>oc</ex> þa buit hesta .ij.
 <lb/>annan viþ fé en h<ex>on</ex>o<ex>m</ex> annan til
   reiþ<ex>ar</ex>
 </explicit>
</msItem>
Note here also the use of the defective attribute on incipit and explicit to indicate that the text begins and ends defectively.

The xml:lang attribute for colophon, explicit, incipit, quote, and rubric may always be used to identify the language of the text quoted, if this is different from the default language specified by the mainLang attribute on textLang.

10.6.4 Filiation

The filiation element can be used to provide information on the relationship between the manuscript and other surviving manuscripts of the same text, either specifically or in a general way, as in the following example:
<msItem>
 <locus>118rb</locus>
 <incipit>Ecce morior cum nichil horum ... <ref>[Dn 13, 43]</ref>. Verba ista
   dixit Susanna de illis</incipit>
 <explicit>ut bonum comune conservatur.</explicit>
 <bibl>Schneyer 3, 436 (Johannes Contractus OFM)</bibl>
 <filiation>weitere Überl. Uppsala C 181, 35r.</filiation>
</msItem>

10.6.5 Text Classification

One or more text classification or text-type codes may be specified, either for the whole of the msContents element, or for one or more of its constituent msItem elements, using the class attribute as specified above:
<msContents>
 <msItem n="1defective="false"
  class="#law">

  <locus from="1vto="71v">1v-71v</locus>
  <title type="uniform">Jónsbók</title>
  <incipit>Magnus m<ex>ed</ex> guds miskun Noregs k<ex>onungu</ex>r</incipit>
  <explicit>en<ex>n</ex> u<ex>ir</ex>da þo t<ex>il</ex> fullra aura</explicit>
 </msItem>
</msContents>
The value used for the class attribute in this example points to a category element with the identifier law, which defines the classification concerned. Such category elements will typically appear within a taxonomy element, within the classDecl element of the TEI header (2.3.7 The Classification Declaration) as in the following example:
<classDecl>
 <taxonomy>
<!-- -->
  <category xml:id="law">
   <catDesc>Legislation</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="war">
   <catDesc>Military topics</catDesc>
  </category>
<!-- -->
 </taxonomy>
</classDecl>
More than one classification may apply to a single item. Another text, concerned with legislation about military topics might thus be specified as follows:
<msItem class="#law #war">
 <p>A treatise on Clausewitz</p>
<!-- details of the item here -->
</msItem>

10.6.6 Languages and Writing Systems

The textLang element should be used to provide information about the languages used within a manuscript item. It may take the form of a simple note, as in the following example:
<textLang>Old Church Slavonic, written in Cyrillic script.</textLang>
Where, for validation and indexing purposes, it is thought convenient to add keywords identifying the particular languages used, the mainLang attribute may be used. This attribute takes the same range of values as the global xml:lang attribute, on which see further vi.1. Language Identification. In the following example a manuscript written chiefly in Old Church Slavonic is described:
<textLang mainLang="chu">Old Church Slavonic</textLang>
A manuscript item will sometimes contain material in more than one language. The mainLang attribute should be used only for the chief language. Other languages used may be specified using the otherLangs attribute as in the following example:
<textLang mainLang="chu"
 otherLangs="RUS HEL">
Mostly Old Church Slavonic, with
some Russian and Greek material</textLang>
Since Old Church Slavonic may be written in either Cyrillic or Glagolitic scripts, and even occasionally in both within the same manuscript, it might be preferable to use a more explicit identifier:
<textLang mainLang="chu-Cyrs">Old Church Slavonic in Cyrillic script</textLang>

The form and scope of language identifiers recommended by these Guidelines is based on the IANA standard described at vi.1. Language Identification and should be followed throughout. Where additional detail is needed correctly to describe a language, or to discuss its deployment in a given text, this should be done using the langUsage element in the TEI header, within which individual language elements document the languages used: see 2.4.2 Language Usage.

Note that the language element defines a particular combination of human language and writing system. Only one language element may be supplied for each such combination. Standard TEI practice also allows this element to be referenced by any element using the global xml:lang attribute in order to specify the language applicable to the content of that element. For example, assuming that language elements have been defined with the identifiers fr (for French), la (for Latin), and de (for German), a manuscript description written in French which specifies that a particular manuscript contains predominantly German but also some Latin material, might have a textLang element like the following:
<textLang xml:lang="frmainLang="de"
 otherLangs="la">
allemand et
latin</textLang>

10.7 Physical Description

Under the general heading ‘physical description’ we subsume a large number of different aspects generally regarded as useful in the description of a given manuscript. These include:

Most manuscript descriptions touch on several of these categories of information though few include them all, and not all distinguish them as clearly as we propose here. In particular, it is often the case that an existing description will include information for which we propose distinct elements within a single paragraph, or even sentence. The encoder must then decide whether to rewrite the description using the structure proposed here, or to retain the existing prose, marked up simply as a series of p elements, directly within the physDesc element.

The physDesc element may thus be used in either of two distinct ways. It may contain a series of paragraphs addressing topics listed above and similar ones. Alternatively, it may act as a container for any choice of the more specialized elements described in the remainder of this section, each of which itself contains a series of paragraphs, and may also have more specific attributes.

In general, it is not recommended to combine unstructured prose description with usage of the more specialized elements, as such an approach complicates processing, and may lead to inconsistency within a single manuscript description. A single physDesc element will normally contain either a series of model.pLike elements, or a sequence of specialized elements from the model.physDescPart class. There are however circumstances in which this is not feasible, for example:

  • the description already exists in a prose form where some of the specialized topics are treated together in paragraphs of prose, but others are treated distinctly;
  • although all parts of the description are clearly distinguished, some of them cannot be mapped to a pre-existing specialized element.
In such situations, both specialized and generic (model.pLike) elements may be combined in a single physDesc. Note however that all generic elements given must precede the first specialized element in the description. Thus the following is valid:
<physDesc>
 <p>Generic descriptive prose...</p>
<!-- other generic elements here -->
 <objectDesc form="codex">
<!-- ... -->
 </objectDesc>
<!-- other specific elements here -->
</physDesc>
but neither of the following is valid:
<physDesc> <objectDesc form="codex">  <!-- ... --> </objectDesc> <p>Generic descriptive prose...</p> </physDesc>
<physDesc> <objectDesc form="codex">    <!-- ... --> </objectDesc> <p>Generic descriptive prose...</p> <!-- other specific elements here --> </physDesc>
The order in which specific elements may appear is also constrained by the content model; again this is for simplicity of processing. They may of course be processed or displayed in any desired order, but for ease of validation, they must be given in the order specified below.

10.7.1 Object Description

The objectDesc element is used to group together those parts of the physical description which relate specifically to the text-bearing object, its format, constitution, layout, etc. The form attribute is used to indicate the specific type of writing vehicle being described, for example, as a codex, roll, tablet, etc. If used it must appear first in the sequence of specialized elements. The objectDesc element has two parts: a description of the support, i.e. the physical carrier on which the text is inscribed; and a description of the layout, i.e. the way text is organized on the carrier.

Taking these in turn, the description of the support is tagged using the following elements, each of which is discussed in more detail below:

  • supportDesc (support description) groups elements describing the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
  • support contains a description of the materials etc. which make up the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
  • extent describes the approximate size of a text stored on some carrier medium or of some other object, digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units.
  • collation contains a description of how the leaves or bifolia are physically arranged.
  • foliation describes the numbering system or systems used to count the leaves or pages in a codex.
  • condition contains a description of the physical condition of the manuscript.
Each of these elements contains paragraphs relating to the topic concerned. Within these paragraphs, phrase-level elements (in particular those discussed above at 10.3 Phrase-level Elements), may be used to tag specific terms of interest if so desired.
<objectDesc form="codex">
 <supportDesc>
  <p>Mostly <material>paper</material>, with watermarks
  <watermark>unicorn</watermark> (<ref>Briquet 9993</ref>) and
  <watermark>ox</watermark> (close to <ref>Briquet 2785</ref>). The first and last
     leaf of each quire, with the exception of quires xvi and xviii, are constituted
     by bifolia of parchment, and all seven miniatures have been painted on inserted
     singletons of parchment.</p>
 </supportDesc>
</objectDesc>

This example combines information which might alternatively be more precisely tagged using the more specific elements described in the following subsections.

10.7.1.1 Support
The support element groups together information about the physical carrier. Typically, for western manuscripts, this will entail discussion of the material (parchment, paper, or a combination of the two) written on. For paper, a discussion of any watermarks present may also be useful. If this discussion makes reference to standard catalogues of such items, these may be tagged using the standard ref element as in the following example:
<support>
 <p>
  <material>Paper</material> with watermark: <watermark>anchor in a circle with
     star on top</watermark>, <watermark>countermark B-B with trefoil</watermark>
   similar to <ref>Moschin, Anchor N 1680</ref>
  <date>1570-1585</date>.</p>
</support>
10.7.1.2 Extent
The extent element, defined in the TEI header, may also be used in a manuscript description to specify the number of leaves a manuscript contains, as in the following example:
<extent>ii + 97 + ii</extent>
Information regarding the size of the leaves may be specifically marked using the phrase level dimensions element, as in the following example, or left as plain prose.
<extent>ii + 321 leaves <dimensions unit="cm">
  <height>35</height>
  <width>27</width>
 </dimensions>
</extent>
Alternatively, the generic measure element might be used within extent, as in the following example:
<extent>
 <measure type="compositionunit="leaf"
  quantity="10">
10 Bl.</measure>
 <measure type="heightquantity="37"
  unit="cm">
37</measure> x <measure type="widthquantity="29"
  unit="cm">
29</measure> cm
</extent>
10.7.1.3 Collation
The collation element should be used to provide a description of a book's current and original structure, that is, the arrangement of its leaves and quires. This information may be conveyed using informal prose, or any appropriate notational convention. Although no specific notation is defined here, an appropriate element to enclose such an expression would be the formula element, which is provided when the figures module is included in a schema. Here are some examples of different ways of treating collation:
<collation>
 <p>
  <formula>1-3:8, 4:6, 5-13:8</formula>
 </p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>There are now four gatherings, the first, second and fourth originally
   consisting of eight leaves, the third of seven. A fifth gathering thought to
   have followed has left no trace. <list>
   <item>Gathering I consists of 7 leaves, a first leaf, originally conjoint with
   <locus>fol. 7</locus>, having been cut away leaving only a narrow strip along
       the gutter; the others, <locus>fols 1</locus> and <locus>6</locus>,
   <locus>2</locus> and <locus>5</locus>, and <locus>3</locus> and
   <locus>4</locus>, are bifolia.</item>
   <item>Gathering II consists of 8 leaves, 4 bifolia.</item>
   <item>Gathering III consists of 7 leaves; <locus>fols 16</locus> and
   <locus>22</locus> are conjoint, the others singletons.</item>
   <item>Gathering IV consists of 2 leaves, a bifolium.</item>
  </list>
 </p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>I (1, 2+9, 3+8, 4+7, 5+6, 10); II (11, 12+17, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18,
   19).</p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>
  <formula>1-5.8 6.6 (catchword, f. 46, does not match following text) 7-8.8
     9.10, 11.2 (through f. 82) 12-14.8 15.8(-7)</formula>
 </p>
</collation>
10.7.1.4 Foliation
The foliation element may be used to indicate the scheme, medium or location of folio, page, column, or line numbers written in the manuscript, frequently including a statement about when and, if known, by whom, the numbering was done.
<foliation>
 <p>Neuere Foliierung, die auch das Vorsatzblatt mitgezählt
   hat.</p>
</foliation>
<foliation>
 <p>Folio numbers were added in brown ink by Árni Magnússon ca.
   1720-1730 in the upper right corner of all recto-pages.</p>
</foliation>
Where a manuscript contains traces of more than one foliation, each should be recorded as a distinct foliation element and optionally given a distinct value for its xml:id attribute. The locus element discussed in 10.3.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript can then indicate which foliation scheme is being cited by means of its scheme attribute, which points to this identifier:
<foliation xml:id="original">
 <p>Original foliation in red roman numerals in the
   middle of the outer margin of each recto</p>
</foliation>
<foliation xml:id="modern">
 <p>Foliated in pencil in the top right corner of each
   recto page.</p>
</foliation>
<!-- ... -->
<locus scheme="#modern">ff 1-20</locus>
10.7.1.5 Condition

The condition element is used to summarize the overall physical state of a manuscript, in particular where such information is not recorded elsewhere in the description. It should not, however, be used to describe changes or repairs to a manuscript, as these are more appropriately described as a part of its custodial history (see 10.9.1.2 Availability and Custodial History). It should be supplied within the supportDesc element, if it discusses the condition of the physical support of the manuscript; within the bindingDesc or binding elements (10.7.3.1 Binding Descriptions) if it discusses only the condition of the binding or bindings concerned; or within the sealDesc element if it discusses the condition of any seal attached to the manuscript.

<supportDesc>
 <condition>
  <p>The manuscript shows signs of damage from water and mould on its
     outermost leaves.</p>
 </condition>
</supportDesc>
<condition>
 <p>Despite tears on many of the leaves the codex is reasonably well
   preserved. The top and the bottom of f. 1 is damaged, and only a thin slip is
   left of the original second leaf (now foliated as 1bis). The lower margin of f.
   92 has been cut away. There is a lacuna of one leaf between ff. 193 and 194. The
   manuscript ends defectively (there are approximately six leaves
   missing).</p>
</condition>
10.7.1.6 Layout Description

The second part of the objectDesc element is the layoutDesc element, which is used to describe and document the mise-en-page of the manuscript, that is the way in which text and illumination are arranged on the page, specifying for example the number of written, ruled, or pricked lines and columns per page, size of margins, distinct blocks such as glosses, commentaries, etc. This may be given as a simple series of paragraphs. Alternatively, one or more different layouts may be identified within a single manuscript, each described by its own layout element.

  • layoutDesc (layout description) collects the set of layout descriptions applicable to a manuscript.
  • layout describes how text is laid out on the page, including information about any ruling, pricking, or other evidence of page-preparation techniques.

Where the layout element is used, the layout will often be sufficiently regular for the attributes on this element to convey all that is necessary; more usually however a more detailed treatment will be required. The attributes are provided as a convenient shorthand for commonly occurring cases, and should not be used except where the layout is regular. The value NA (not-applicable) should be used for cases where the layout is either very irregular, or where it cannot be characterized simply in terms of lines and columns, for example, where blocks of commentary and text are arranged in a regular but complex pattern on each page

The following examples indicate the range of possibilities:
<layout ruledLines="25 32">
 <p>Most pages have between 25 and 32 long lines ruled in lead.</p>
</layout>
<layout columns="1writtenLines="24">
 <p>Written in one column throughout; 24 lines per page.</p>
</layout>
<layout>
 <p>Written in 3 columns, with 8 lines of text and interlinear glosses in
   the centre, and up to 26 lines of gloss in the outer two columns. Double
   vertical bounding lines ruled in hard point on hair side. Text lines ruled
   faintly in lead. Remains of prickings in upper, lower, and outer (for 8 lines of
   text only) margins.</p>
</layout>
Where multiple layout elements are supplied, the scope for each specification can be indicated by means of locus elements within the content of the element, as in the following example:
<layoutDesc>
 <layout ruledLines="25 32">
  <p>On <locus from="1rto="202v">fols 1r-200v</locus> and <locus from="210rto="212v">fols 210r-212v</locus> there are between 25 and 32 ruled lines.</p>
 </layout>
 <layout ruledLines="34 50">
  <p>On <locus from="203rto="209v">fols 203r-209v</locus> there are between 34
     and 50 ruled lines.</p>
 </layout>
</layoutDesc>

10.7.2 Writing, Decoration, and Other Notations

The second group of elements within a structured physical description concerns aspects of the writing, illumination, or other notation (notably, music) found in a manuscript, including additions made in later hands—the ‘text’, as it were, as opposed to the carrier.

  • handDesc (description of hands) contains a description of all the different kinds of writing used in a manuscript.
  • handNote (note on hand) describes a particular style or hand distinguished within a manuscript.
  • scriptDesc contains a description of the scripts used in a manuscript or similar source.
  • scriptNote describes a particular script distinguished within the description of a manuscript or similar resource.
  • typeDesc contains a description of the typefaces or other aspects of the printing of an incunable or other printed source.
  • typeNote describes a particular font or other significant typographic feature distinguished within the description of a printed resource.
  • decoDesc (decoration description) contains a description of the decoration of a manuscript, either as a sequence of paragraphs, or as a sequence of topically organized decoNote elements.
  • decoNote (note on decoration) contains a note describing either a decorative component of a manuscript, or a fairly homogenous class of such components.
  • musicNotation contains description of type of musical notation.
  • additions contains a description of any significant additions found within a manuscript, such as marginalia or other annotations.
10.7.2.1 Writing
The handDesc element can contain a short description of the general characteristics of the writing observed in a manuscript, as in the following example:
<handDesc>
 <p>Written in a <term>late Caroline minuscule</term>; versals in a form of
 <term>rustic capitals</term>; although the marginal and interlinear gloss is
   written in varying shades of ink that are not those of the main text, text and
   gloss appear to have been copied during approximately the same time span.</p>
</handDesc>

Note the use of the term element to mark specific technical terms within the context of the handDesc element.

Where several distinct hands have been identified, this fact can be registered by using the hands attribute, as in the following example:
<handDesc hands="2">
 <p>The manuscript is written in two contemporary hands, otherwise unknown, but
   clearly those of practised scribes. Hand I writes ff. 1r-22v and hand II ff. 23
   and 24. Some scholars, notably Verner Dahlerup and Hreinn Benediktsson, have
   argued for a third hand on f. 24, but the evidence for this is
   insubstantial.</p>
</handDesc>
Alternatively, or in addition, where more specific information about one or more of the hands identified is to be recorded, the handNote element should be used, as in the following example:
<handDesc hands="3">
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-1scope="minor">
  <p>The first part of the manuscript, <locus from="1vto="72v:4">fols
       1v-72v:4</locus>, is written in a practised Icelandic Gothic bookhand. This hand
     is not found elsewhere.</p>
 </handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-2scope="major">
  <p>The second part of the manuscript, <locus from="72v:4to="194v">fols
       72v:4-194</locus>, is written in a hand contemporary with the first; it can also
     be found in a fragment of <title>Knýtlinga saga</title>, <ref>AM 20b II
       fol.</ref>.</p>
 </handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-3scope="minor">
  <p>The third hand has written the majority of the chapter headings. This hand
     has been identified as the one also found in <ref>AM 221
       fol.</ref>.</p>
 </handNote>
</handDesc>
Note here the use of the locus element, discussed in section 10.3.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript, to specify exactly which parts of a manuscript are written by a given hand.

When a full or partial transcription of a manuscript is available in addition to the manuscript description, the handShift element described in 11.3.2.1 Document Hands can be used to link the relevant parts of the transcription to the appropriate handNote element in the description: for example, at the point in the transcript where the second hand listed above starts (i.e. at folio 72v:4), we might insert <handShift new="#Eirsp-2"/>.

The elements typeDesc, and typeNote are used to provide information about the printing of a source, in exactly the same way as the handDesc or handNote elements provide information about its writing. They are provided for the convenience of those using this module to provide information about early printed sources and incunables. The typeDesc element can simply provide a summary description:
<typeDesc>
 <p>Uses a mixture of Roman and Black Letter types.</p>
</typeDesc>
Where detailed information about individual typefaces is to be recorded, this may be done using the typeNote element:
<typeDesc>
 <summary>Uses a mixture of Roman and Black Letter types.</summary>
 <typeNote>Antiqua typeface, showing influence of Jenson's Venetian
   fonts.</typeNote>
 <typeNote>The black letter face is a variant of Schwabacher.</typeNote>
</typeDesc>
Where information is required about both typography and written script, for example where a printed book contains extensive handwritten annotation, both handDesc and typeDesc elements should be supplied. Similarly, in the following example, the source text is a typescript with extensive handwritten annotation:
<typeDesc>
 <typeNote xml:id="TSET">Authorial typescript, probably produced on Eliot's own
   Remington. </typeNote>
</typeDesc>
<handDesc>
 <handNote xml:id="EPmedium="red-ink">Ezra Pound's annotations.</handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="TSEmedium="black-ink">Commentary in Eliot's hand.</handNote>
</handDesc>

The elements scriptNote and scriptDesc may be used in exactly the same way to document a script used in this and other manuscripts, for example to record that this script was used mainly for the production of books or for charters; or that it is characteristic of some geographical area or scriptorium or date. Such information as the letter forms characteristic of this script may also be recorded. By contrast, the handNote element would be used to document the way that a particular scribe uses a script, for example with long or short descenders, or using a pen which is cut in a different way, or an ink of a given colour, and so forth.

As with typeNote, the scriptNote element can be used in combination with handNote.

10.7.2.2 Decoration

It can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between aspects of a manuscript which are purely physical and those which form part of its intellectual content. This is particularly true of illuminations and other forms of decoration in a manuscript. We propose the following elements for the purpose of delimiting discussion of these aspects within a manuscript description, and for convenience locate them all within the physical description, despite the fact that the illustrative features of a manuscript will in many cases also be seen as constituting part of its intellectual content.

The decoDesc element may contain simply one or more paragraphs summarizing the overall nature of the decorative features of the manuscript, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <p>The decoration comprises two full page miniatures, perhaps added by the
   original owner, or slightly later; the original major decoration consists of
   twenty-three large miniatures, illustrating the divisions of the Passion
   narrative and the start of the major texts, and the major divisions of the
   Hours; seventeen smaller miniatures, illustrating the suffrages to saints; and
   seven historiated initials, illustrating the pericopes and major prayers.</p>
</decoDesc>
Alternatively, it may contain a series of more specific typed decoNote elements, each summarizing a particular aspect or individual instance of the decoration present, for example the use of miniatures, initials (historiated or otherwise), borders, diagrams, etc., as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <decoNote type="miniature">
  <p>One full-page miniature, facing the beginning of the first Penitential
     Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>One seven-line historiated initial, commencing the first Penitential
     Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>Six four-line decorated initials, commencing the second through the seventh
     Penitential Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>Some three hundred two-line versal initials with pen-flourishes, commencing
     the psalm verses.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="border">
  <p>Four-sided border decoration surrounding the miniatures and three-sided
     border decoration accompanying the historiated and decorated initials.</p>
 </decoNote>
</decoDesc>
Where more exact indexing of the decorative content of a manuscript is required, the standard TEI elements term or index may be used within the prose description to supply or delimit appropriate iconographic terms, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <decoNote type="miniatures">
  <p>Fourteen large miniatures with arched tops, above five lines of text: <list>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 14r</locus>Pericopes. <term>St. John writing on Patmos</term>,
         with the Eagle holding his ink-pot and pen-case; some flaking of pigment,
         especially in the sky</item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 26r</locus>Hours of the Virgin, Matins.
    <term>Annunciation</term>; Gabriel and the Dove to the right</item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 60r</locus>Prime. <term>Nativity</term>; the <term>Virgin and
           Joseph adoring the Child</term>
    </item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 66r</locus>Terce. <term>Annunciation to the Shepherds</term>,
         one with <term>bagpipes</term>
    </item>
<!-- ... -->
   </list>
  </p>
 </decoNote>
</decoDesc>
10.7.2.3 Musical Notation
Where a manuscript contains music, the musicNotation element may be used to describe the form of notation employed, as in the following examples:
<musicNotation>
 <p>Square notation on 4-line red staves.</p>
</musicNotation>
<musicNotation>
 <p>Neumes in campo aperto of the St. Gall type.</p>
</musicNotation>

If a manuscript employs more than one notation, they must both be described within the same musicNotation element, for example as different list items.

10.7.2.4 Additions and Marginalia
The additions element can be used to list or describe any additions to the manuscript, such as marginalia, scribblings, doodles, etc., which are considered to be of interest or importance. Such topics may also be discussed or referenced elsewhere in a description, for example in the history element, in cases where the marginalia provide evidence of ownership. Note that this element may not be repeated within a single manuscript description. If several different kinds of additional matter are discussed, the content may be structured as a labelled list or a series of paragraphs. Some examples follow:
<additions>
 <p>Doodles on most leaves, possibly by children, and often quite
   amusing.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p xml:lang="fr">Quelques annotations marginales des XVIe et XVIIe s.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p>The text of this manuscript is not interpolated with sentences from Royal
   decrees promulgated in 1294, 1305 and 1314. In the margins, however, another
   somewhat later scribe has added the relevant paragraphs of these decrees, see
   pp. 8, 24, 44, 47 etc.</p>
 <p>As a humorous gesture the scribe in one opening of the manuscript, pp. 36 and
   37, has prolonged the lower stems of one letter f and five letters þ and has
   them drizzle down the margin.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p>Spaces for initials and chapter headings were left by the scribe but not
   filled in. A later, probably fifteenth-century, hand has added initials and
   chapter headings in greenish-coloured ink on fols <locus>8r</locus>,
 <locus>8v</locus>, <locus>9r</locus>, <locus>10r</locus> and <locus>11r</locus>.
   Although a few of these chapter headings are now rather difficult to read, most
   can be made out, e.g. fol. <locus>8rb</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">floti ast<ex>ri</ex>d<ex>ar</ex>
  </quote>; fol.
 <locus>9rb</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">v<ex>m</ex> olaf conung</quote>, and fol.
 <locus>10ra</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">Gipti<ex>n</ex>g ol<ex>a</ex>fs
     k<ex>onun</ex>gs</quote>.</p>
 <p>The manuscript contains the following marginalia: <list>
   <item>Fol. <locus>4v</locus>, left margin: <quote xml:lang="is">hialmadr
    <ex>ok</ex>
     <lb/>brynjadr</quote>, in a fifteenth-century hand, imitating an addition made
       to the text by the scribe at this point.</item>
   <item>Fol. <locus>5r</locus>, lower margin: <quote xml:lang="is">þ<ex>e</ex>tta
         þiki m<ex>er</ex> v<ex>er</ex>a gott blek en<ex>n</ex>da kan<ex>n</ex> ek icki
         betr sia</quote>, in a fifteenth-century hand, probably the same as that on the
       previous page.</item>
   <item>Fol. <locus>9v</locus>, bottom margin: <quote xml:lang="is">þessa bok
         uilda eg <sic>gæt</sic> lært med
    <lb/>an Gud gefe myer Gott ad
    <lb/>læra</quote>; seventeenth-century hand.</item>
  </list>
 </p>
 <p>There are in addition a number of illegible scribbles in a later hand (or
   hands) on fols <locus>2r</locus>, <locus>3r</locus>, <locus>5v</locus> and
 <locus>19r</locus>.</p>
</additions>

10.7.3 Bindings, Seals, and Additional Material

The third major component of the physical description relates to supporting but distinct physical components, such as bindings, seals and accompanying material. These may be described using the following specialist elements:

  • bindingDesc (binding description) describes the present and former bindings of a manuscript, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of distinct binding elements, one for each binding of the manuscript.
  • binding contains a description of one binding, i.e. type of covering, boards, etc. applied to a manuscript.
  • sealDesc (seal description) describes the seals or other external items attached to a manuscript, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of distinct seal elements, possibly with additional decoNotes.
  • seal contains a description of one seal or similar attachment applied to a manuscript.
  • accMat (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period.
10.7.3.1 Binding Descriptions
The bindingDesc element contains a description of the state of the present and former bindings of a manuscript, including information about its material, any distinctive marks, and provenance information. This may be given as a series of paragraphs if only one binding is being described, or as a series of distinct binding elements, each describing a distinct binding where these are separately described. For example:
<bindingDesc>
 <p>Sewing not visible; tightly rebound over 19th-century pasteboards, reusing
   panels of 16th-century brown leather with gilt tooling à la fanfare, Paris c.
   1580-90, the centre of each cover inlaid with a 17th-century oval medallion of
   red morocco tooled in gilt (perhaps replacing the identifying mark of a previous
   owner); the spine similarly tooled, without raised bands or title-piece;
   coloured endbands; the edges of the leaves and boards gilt. Boxed.</p>
</bindingDesc>
Within a binding description, the elements decoNote and condition are available, as alternatives to p, for paragraphs dealing exclusively with information about decorative features of a binding, or about its condition, respectively.
<binding>
 <p>Bound, s. XVIII (?), in <material>diced russia leather</material>
   retaining most of the original 15th century metal ornaments (but with some
   replacements) as well as the heavy wooden boards.</p>
 <decoNote>
  <p>On each cover: alternating circular stamps of the Holy Monogram, a
     sunburst, and a flower.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote>
  <p>On the cornerpieces, one of which is missing, a rectangular stamp
     of the Agnus Dei.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <condition>Front and back leather inlaid panels very badly worn.</condition>
 <p>Rebacked during the 19th century.</p>
</binding>

As noted above, (10.7.1.5 Condition) the element condition may also be used as an alternative to p for paragraphs concerned exclusively with the condition of a binding, where this has not been supplied as part of the physical description.

10.7.3.2 Seals
The sealDesc element supplies information about the seal(s) attached to documents to guarantee their integrity, or to show authentication of the issuer or consent of the participants. It may contain one or more paragraphs summarizing the overall nature of the seals, or may contain one or more seal elements.
<sealDesc>
 <seal n="1type="pendant"
  subtype="cauda_duplex">

  <p>Round seal of <name>Anders Olufsen</name> in black wax: <bibl>
    <ref>DAS
         930</ref>
   </bibl>. Parchment tag, on which is written: <quote>pertinere nos
       predictorum placiti nostri iusticarii precessorum dif</quote>.</p>
 </seal>
 <seal n="2type="pendant"
  subtype="cauda_duplex">

  <p>The seal of <name>Jens Olufsen</name> in black wax: <bibl>
    <ref>DAS
         1061</ref>
   </bibl>. Legend: <quote>S IOHANNES OLAVI</quote>. Parchment tag on
     which is written: <quote>Woldorp Iohanne G</quote>.</p>
 </seal>
</sealDesc>
10.7.3.3 Accompanying Material

The circumstance may arise where material not originally part of a manuscript is bound into or otherwise kept with a manuscript. In some cases this material would best be treated in a separate msPart element (see 10.10 Manuscript Parts below). There are, however, cases where the additional matter is not self-evidently a distinct manuscript: it might, for example, be a set of notes by a later scholar, or a file of correspondence relating to the manuscript. The accMat element is provided as a holder for this kind of information.

  • accMat (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period.
Here is an example of the use of this element, describing a note by the Icelandic manuscript collector Árni Magnússon which has been bound with the manuscript:
<accMat>
 <p>A slip in Árni Magnússon's hand has been stuck to the pastedown on the inside
   front cover; the text reads: <quote xml:lang="is">Þidreks Søgu þessa hefi eg
     feiged af Sekreterer Wielandt Anno 1715 i Kaupmanna høfn. Hun er, sem eg sie,
     Copia af Austfirda bókinni (Eidagás) en<ex>n</ex> ecki progenies Brædratungu
     bokarinnar. Og er þar fyrer eigi i allan<ex>n</ex> máta samhlioda
     þ<ex>eir</ex>re er Sr Jon Erlendz son hefer ritad fyrer Mag. Bryniolf. Þesse
     Þidreks Saga mun vera komin fra Sr Vigfuse á Helgafelle.</quote>
 </p>
</accMat>

10.8 History

The following elements are used to record information about the history of a manuscript:

  • history groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origin contains any descriptive or other information concerning the origin of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • provenance contains any descriptive or other information concerning a single identifiable episode during the history of a manuscript or manuscript part, after its creation but before its acquisition.
  • acquisition contains any descriptive or other information concerning the process by which a manuscript or manuscript part entered the holding institution.

The three components of the history element all have the same substructure, consisting of one or more paragraphs marked as p elements. Each of these three elements is also a member of the att.datable attribute class, itself a member of the att.datable.w3c class, and thus also carries the following optional attributes:

  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.
    notBeforespecifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfterspecifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.

Information about the origins of the manuscript, its place and date of writing, should be given as one or more paragraphs contained by a single origin element; following this, any available information on distinct stages in the history of the manuscript before its acquisition by its current holding institution should be included as paragraphs within one or more provenance elements. Finally, any information specific to the means by which the manuscript was acquired by its present owners should be given as paragraphs within the acquisition element.

Here is a fairly simple example of the use of this element:
<history>
 <origin>
  <p>Written in <origPlace>Durham</origPlace> during <origDate notBefore="1125"
    notAfter="1175">
the mid-twelfth
       century</origDate>.</p>
 </origin>
 <provenance>
  <p>Recorded in two medieval catalogues of the books belonging to
  <name type="org">Durham Priory</name>, made in <date>1391</date> and
  <date>1405</date>.</p>
 </provenance>
 <provenance>
  <p>Given to <name type="person">W. Olleyf</name> by <name type="person">William Ebchester, Prior (1446-56)</name> and later belonged to
  <name type="person">Henry Dalton</name>, Prior of Holy Island (<name type="place">Lindisfarne</name>) according to inscriptions on ff. 4v and 5.</p>
 </provenance>
 <acquisition>
  <p>Presented to <name type="org">Trinity College</name> in
  <date>1738</date> by <name type="person">Thomas Gale</name> and his son <name type="person">Roger</name>.</p>
 </acquisition>
</history>
Here is a fuller example, demonstrating the use of multiple provenance elements where distinct periods of ownership for the manuscript have been identified:
<history>
 <origin notBefore="1225notAfter="1275"> Written in Spain or Portugal in the
   middle of the 13th century (the date 1042, given in a marginal note on f. 97v,
   cannot be correct.)</origin>
 <provenance>The Spanish scholar <name type="person">Benito Arias Montano</name>
   (1527-1598) has written his name on f. 97r, and may be presumed to have owned
   the manuscript. </provenance>
 <provenance>It came somehow into the possession of <foreign xml:lang="da">etatsråd</foreign>
  <name type="person">Holger Parsberg</name> (1636-1692), who has written his name
   twice, once on the front pastedown and once on f. 1r, the former dated
 <date>1680</date> and the latter <date>1682</date>.</provenance>
 <provenance>Following Parsberg's death the manuscript was bought by
 <foreign>etatsråd</foreign>
  <name type="person">Jens Rosenkrantz</name> (1640-1695) when Parsberg's library
   was auctioned off (23 October 1693).</provenance>
 <acquisition notBefore="1696"
  notAfter="1697">
The manuscript was acquired by
   Árni Magnússon from the estate of Jens Rosenkrantz, presumably at auction (the
   auction lot number 468 is written in red chalk on the flyleaf), either in 1696
   or 97.</acquisition>
</history>

10.9 Additional Information

Three categories of additional information are provided for by the scheme described here, grouped together within the additional element described in this section.

  • additional groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information.
  • adminInfo (administrative information) contains information about the present custody and availability of the manuscript, and also about the record description itself.
  • surrogates contains information about any representations of the manuscript being described which may exist in the holding institution or elsewhere.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.

None of the constituent elements of additional is required. If any is supplied, it may appear once only; furthermore, the order in which elements are supplied should be as specified above.

10.9.1 Administrative Information

The adminInfo element is used to hold information relating to the curation and management of a manuscript. This may be supplied as a note using the global note element. Alternatively, different aspects of this information may be presented grouped within one of the following specialized elements:

  • recordHist (recorded history) provides information about the source and revision status of the parent manuscript description itself.
  • availability supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc.
  • custodialHist (custodial history) contains a description of a manuscript's custodial history, either as running prose or as a series of dated custodial events.
10.9.1.1 Record History

The recordHist element may contain simply a series of paragraphs. Alternatively it may contain a source element, followed by an optional series of change elements.

  • source describes the original source for the information contained with a manuscript description.
  • change documents a change or set of changes made during the production of a source document, or during the revision of an electronic file.
The source element is used to document the primary source of information for the record containing it, in a similar way to the standard TEI sourceDesc element within a TEI Header. If the record is a new one, made without reference to anything other than the manuscript itself, then it may simply contain a p element, as in the following example:
<source>
 <p>Directly catalogued from the original manuscript.</p>
</source>
Frequently, however, the record will be derived from some previously existing description, which may be specified using the standard TEI bibl element, as in the following example:
<recordHist>
 <source>
  <p>Information transcribed from <bibl>
    <title>The index of Middle English
         verse</title>
    <biblScope>123</biblScope>
   </bibl>.</p>
 </source>
</recordHist>
If, as is likely, a full bibliographic description of the source from which cataloguing information was taken is included within the listBibl element contained by the current additional element, or elsewhere in the current document, then it need not be repeated here. Instead, it should be referenced using the standard TEI ref element, as in the following example:
<additional>
 <adminInfo>
  <recordHist>
   <source>
    <p>Information transcribed from <bibl>
      <ref target="#IMEV">IMEV</ref>
           123</bibl>.</p>
   </source>
  </recordHist>
 </adminInfo>
 <listBibl>
  <bibl xml:id="IMEV">
   <author>Carleton Brown</author> and <author>Rossell Hope Robbins</author>
   <title level="m">The index of Middle English verse</title>
   <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
   <date>1943</date>
  </bibl>
<!-- other bibliographic records relating to this manuscript here -->
 </listBibl>
</additional>
The change element may also appear within the revisionDesc element of the standard TEI header; its use here is intended to signal the similarity of function between the two container elements. Where the TEI header should be used to document the revision history of the whole electronic file to which it is prefixed, the recordHist element may be used to document changes at a lower level, relating to the individual description, as in the following example:
<change when="2005-03-10">On 10 March 2005 <name>MJD</name> added provenance
information</change>
10.9.1.2 Availability and Custodial History
The availability element is another element also available in the TEI header, which should be used here to supply any information concerning access to the current manuscript, such as its physical location (where this is not implicit in its identifier), any restrictions on access, information about copyright, etc.
<availability>
 <p>Viewed by appointment only, to be arranged with curator.</p>
</availability>
<availability>
 <p>In conservation, Jan. - Mar., 2002. On loan to the Bayerische
   Staatsbibliothek, April - July, 2002.</p>
</availability>
<availability>
 <p>The manuscript is in poor condition, due to many of the leaves being brittle
   and fragile and the poor quality of a number of earlier repairs; it should
   therefore not be used or lent out until it has been conserved.</p>
</availability>

The custodialHist record is used to describe the custodial history of a manuscript, recording any significant events noted during the period that it has been located within its holding institution. It may contain either a series of p elements, or a series of custEvent elements, each describing a distinct incident or event, further specified by a type attribute, and carrying dating information by virtue of its membership in the att.datable class, as noted above.

  • custEvent (custodial event) describes a single event during the custodial history of a manuscript.
Here is an example of the use of this element:
<custodialHist>
 <custEvent type="conservation"
  notBefore="1961-03-01notAfter="1963-02-28">

  <p>Conserved between March 1961 and February 1963 at Birgitte Dalls
     Konserveringsværksted.</p>
 </custEvent>
 <custEvent type="photography"
  notBefore="1988-05-01notAfter="1988-05-30">

  <p>Photographed in May 1988 by AMI/FA.</p>
 </custEvent>
 <custEvent type="transfer"
  notBefore="1989-11-13notAfter="1989-11-13">

  <p>Dispatched to Iceland 13 November 1989.</p>
 </custEvent>
</custodialHist>

10.9.2 Surrogates

The surrogates element is used to provide information about representations such as photographs or other representations of the manuscript which may exist within the holding institution or elsewhere.

  • surrogates contains information about any representations of the manuscript being described which may exist in the holding institution or elsewhere.
The surrogates element should not be used to repeat information about representations of the manuscript available within published works; this should normally be documented within the listBibl element within the additional element. However, it is often also convenient to record information such as negative numbers or digital identifiers for unpublished collections of manuscript images maintained within the holding institution, as well as to provide more detailed descriptive information about the surrogate itself. Such information may be provided as prose paragraphs, within which identifying information about particular surrogates may be presented using the standard TEI bibl element, as in the following example:
<surrogates>
 <bibl>
  <title type="gmd">microfilm (master)</title>
  <idno>G.neg. 160</idno>
   n.d.</bibl>
 <bibl>
  <title type="gmd">microfilm (archive)</title>
  <idno>G.pos. 186</idno>
   n.d.</bibl>
 <bibl>
  <title type="gmd">b/w prints</title>
  <idno>AM 795 4to</idno>
  <date when="1999-01-27">27 January 1999</date>
  <note>copy of G.pos.
     186</note>
 </bibl>
 <bibl>
  <title type="gmd">b/w prints</title>
  <idno>reg.nr. 75</idno>
  <date when="1999-01-25">25 January 1999</date>
  <note>photographs of the spine, outside covers, stitching etc.</note>
 </bibl>
</surrogates>
Note the use of the specialized form of title (general material designation) to specify the kind of surrogate being documented.

At a later revision, the content of the surrogates element is likely to be expanded to include elements more specifically intended to provide detailed information such as technical details of the process by which a digital or photographic image was made. For information about the inclusion of digital facsimile images within a TEI document, refer also to 11.1 Digital Facsimiles.

10.10 Manuscript Parts

The msPart element may be used in cases where manuscripts or parts of manuscripts that were originally physically separate have been bound together and/or share the same call number.

  • msPart (manuscript part) contains information about an originally distinct manuscript or part of a manuscript, which is now part of a composite manuscript.
Since each component of such a composite manuscript will in all likelihood have its own content, physical description, history, and so on, the structure of msPart is in the main identical to that of msDesc, allowing one to retain the top level of identity (msIdentifier), but to branch out thereafter into as many parts, or even subparts, as necessary.
<msDesc xml:id="KBR_ms_10066-77"
 xml:lang="engtype="composite">

 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement key="tgn_7007868">Brussels</settlement>
  <repository>Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België / Bibliothèque royale de
     Belgique</repository>
  <idno>ms. 10066-77</idno>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msContents>
  <summary xml:lang="lat">Miscellany of various texts; Prudentius,
     Psychomachia; Physiologus de natura animantium</summary>
  <textLang mainLang="lat">Latin</textLang>
 </msContents>
 <physDesc>
  <objectDesc form="composite_manuscript"/>
 </physDesc>
 <msPart>
  <msIdentifier>
   <idno>ms. 10066-77 ff. 140r-156v</idno>
  </msIdentifier>
  <msContents>
   <summary xml:lang="lat">Physiologus</summary>
   <textLang mainLang="lat">Latin</textLang>
  </msContents>
 </msPart>
 <msPart>
  <msIdentifier>
   <idno>ms. 10066-77 ff. 112r-139r</idno>
  </msIdentifier>
  <msContents>
   <summary xml:lang="lat">Prudentius, Psychomachia</summary>
   <textLang mainLang="lat">Latin</textLang>
  </msContents>
 </msPart>
</msDesc>

10.11 Manuscript Fragments

The msFrag element may be used inside msDesc when encoding one or more fragments of a scattered or fragmented manuscript. The fragment(s) described in a single msDesc element may be held either at several institutions or at a single institution, so different call numbers may be attached to the fragments. Inside the msFrag element, information about the single fragment or each dispersed part is provided: e.g. the current shelfmark or call number, the labels of the range of folios concerned if the fragment currently forms part of a larger manuscript, dimensions, extent, title, author, annotations, illuminations and so on.

  • msFrag (manuscript fragment) contains information about a fragment of a scattered manuscript now held as a single unit or bound into a larger manuscript.
One well-known example of fragmentation is the Old Church Slavonic manuscript known as Codex Suprasliensis, substantial parts of which are to be found in three separate repositories, in Ljubljana, Warsaw, and St. Petersburg. This manuscript should be represented using one single msDesc element in which msName is used to identify the fragmented manuscript, along with three distinct msFrag elements, each of which contains the current identifier of one of the fragments, a physical description, and other related information:
<msDesc>
 <msIdentifier>
  <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Suprasliensis</msName>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msFrag>
  <msIdentifier>
   <settlement>Ljubljana</settlement>
   <repository>Narodna in univerzitetna knjiznica</repository>
   <idno>MS Kopitar 2</idno>
  </msIdentifier>
  <msContents>
   <summary>Contains ff. 10 to 42 only</summary>
  </msContents>
 </msFrag>
 <msFrag>
  <msIdentifier>
   <settlement>Warszawa</settlement>
   <repository>Biblioteka Narodowa</repository>
   <idno>BO 3.201</idno>
  </msIdentifier>
 </msFrag>
 <msFrag>
  <msIdentifier>
   <settlement>Sankt-Peterburg</settlement>
   <repository>Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka</repository>
   <idno>Q.p.I.72</idno>
  </msIdentifier>
 </msFrag>
</msDesc>
Notes
40
This chapter is based on the work of the European MASTER (Manuscript Access through Standards for Electronic Records) project, funded by the European Union from January 1999 to June 2001, and led by Peter Robinson, then at the Centre for Technology and the Arts at De Montfort University, Leicester (UK). Significant input also came from a TEI Workgroup headed by Consuelo W. Dutschke of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University (USA) and Ambrogio Piazzoni of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (IT) during 1998-2000.

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TEI Guidelines Version 3.0.1a. Last updated on 8th December 2016, revision d0c4414. This page generated on 2016-12-08T15:37:22Z.